To assist countries in the monitoring their progress towards the achievement of SDG 4 targets, tools have been developed and cover conceptual, methodological, and reporting aspects necessary in the monitoring of SDG 4.
In the design of an assessment, or survey, it is essential to clearly define a conceptual framework, which consists of:
- the purpose of the assessment or survey;
- what the assessment or survey is intended to measure;
- how to best collect the information to process the data adequately
The decisions made in this phase will have an impact on how the data can be used to inform.
The operationalization of an evaluation must be well defined as it can otherwise affect both its quality and comparability.
As countries from around the world are required to monitor SDG 4 using different initiatives and data, it is essential to define minimum good practices for assessment programmes to follow in order to respect national authority and autonomy.
This is facilitated through methodological frameworks.
Reporting frameworks are developed to ensure the highest level of comparability by proposing ways to align data from various sources.
For example, assessments use different standard-setting approaches to establish levels of performance, which are then used to classify scores in different categories.
For education systems participating in the same cross-national learning assessments, results are comparable. But results are not comparable across different cross-national learning assessments or between national assessments.